Tuesday, 25 June 2019
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PEMERINTAH KABUPATEN KEDIRI

Jl. Soekarno-Hatta No. 1 Kediri Telepon: 0354 689901-5

Sejarah dan Asal Mula Kediri

TANGGAL 25 MARET 804 M DITETAPKAN  MENJADI HARI JADI KEDIRI

ImageNama Kediri ada yang berpendapat berasal dari kata "KEDI" yang artinya "MANDUL" atau "Wanita yang tidak berdatang bulan".Menurut kamus Jawa Kuno Wojo Wasito, 'KEDI" berarti Orang Kebiri Bidan atau Dukun. Di dalam lakon Wayang, Sang Arjuno pernah menyamar Guru Tari di Negara Wirata, bernama "KEDI WRAKANTOLO".Bila kita hubungkan dengan nama tokoh Dewi Kilisuci yang bertapa di Gua Selomangleng, "KEDI" berarti Suci atau Wadad. Disamping itu kata Kediri berasal dari kata "DIRI" yang berarti Adeg, Angdhiri, menghadiri atau menjadi Raja (bahasa Jawa Jumenengan). Untuk itu dapat kita baca pada prasasti "WANUA" tahun 830 saka, yang diantaranya berbunyi : " Ing Saka 706 cetra nasa danami sakla pa ka sa wara, angdhiri rake panaraban", artinya : pada tahun saka 706 atau 734 Masehi, bertahta Raja Pake Panaraban.Nama Kediri banyak terdapat pada kesusatraan Kuno yang berbahasa ImageJawa Kuno seperti : Kitab Samaradana, Pararaton, Negara Kertagama dan Kitab Calon Arang.Demikian pula pada beberapa prasasti yang menyebutkan nama Kediri seperti : Prasasti Ceber, berangka tahun 1109 saka yang terletak di Desa Ceker, sekarang Desa Sukoanyar Kecamatan Mojo.Dalam prasasti ini menyebutkan, karena penduduk Ceker berjasa kepada Raja, maka mereka memperoleh hadiah, "Tanah Perdikan".Dalam prasasti itu tertulis "Sri Maharaja Masuk Ri Siminaninaring Bhuwi Kadiri" artinya raja telah kembali kesimanya, atau harapannya di Bhumi Kadiri.Prasasti Kamulan di Desa Kamulan Kabupaten Trenggalek yang berangkat tahun 1116 saka, tepatnya menurut Damais tanggal 31 Agustus 1194.Pada prasasti itu juga menyebutkan nama, Kediri, yang diserang oleh raja dari kerajaan sebelah timur."Aka ni satru wadwa kala sangke purnowo", sehingga raja meninggalkan istananya di Katangkatang ("tatkala nin kentar sangke kadetwan ring katang-katang deni nkir malr yatik kaprabon sri maharaja siniwi ring bhumi kadiri").Menurut bapak MM. Sukarto Kartoatmojo menyebutkan Imagebahwa "hari jadi Kediri" muncul pertama kalinya bersumber dari tiga buah prasasti Harinjing A-B-C, namun pendapat beliau, nama Kadiri yang paling tepat dimuculkan pada ketiga prasasti. Alasannya Prasti Harinjing A tanggal 25 Maret 804 masehi, dinilai usianya lebih tua dari pada kedua prasasti B dan C, yakni tanggal 19 September 921 dan tanggal 7 Juni 1015 Masehi.Dilihat dari ketiga tanggal tersebut menyebutkan nama Kediri ditetapkan tanggal 25 Maret 804 M. Tatkala Bagawantabhari memperoleh anugerah tanah perdikan dari Raja Rake Layang Dyah Tulodong yang tertulis di ketiga prasasti Harinjing.Nama Kediri semula kecil lalu berkembang menjadi nama Kerajaan Panjalu yang besar dan sejarahnya terkenal hingga sekarang.Selanjutnya ditetapkan surat Keputusan Bupati Kepada Derah Tingkat II Kediri tanggal 22 Januari 1985 nomor 82 tahun 1985 tentang hari jadi Kediri, yang pasal 1 berbunyi " Tanggal 25 Maret 804 Masehi ditetapkan menjadi Hari Jadi Kediri.

 

MENGUKIR KEDIRI LEWAT TANGAN BHAGAWANTA BARI.

ImageMungkin saja Kediri tidak akan tampil dalam panggung sejarah, andai kata Bagawanta Bhari, seorang tokoh spiritual dari belahan Desa Culanggi, tidak mendapatkan penghargaan dari Sri Maharaja Rake Layang Dyah Tuladong. Boleh dikata, pada waktu itu bagawanta Bhari, seperti memperoleh penghargaan Parasamya Purnakarya Nugraha, kalau hal itu terjadi sekarang ini. Atau mungkin seperti memperoleh penghargaan Kalpataru sebagai Penyelamat Liangkungan.Memang Kiprah Bagawanta Bhari kala itu, bagaimana upaya tokok spiritual ini meyelamatkan lingkungan dari amukan banjir tahunan yang mengancam daerahnya. Ketekunannya yang tanpa pamprih inilah akhirnya menghantarkan dirinya sebagai panutan, sekaligus idola masyarakat kala itu.Ketika itu tidak ada istilah Parasamya atau Kalpataru, namun bagi masyarakat yang berhasil dalam ikut serta memakmurkan negara akan mendapat "Ganjaran" seperti Bagawanta Bhari, dirinya juga memperoleh ganjaran itu berupa gelar kehormatan "Wanuta Rama" (ayah yang terhormat atau Kepala Desa) dan tidak dikenakan berbagai macam pajak (Mangilaladrbyahaji) di daerah yang dikuasai Bagawanta Bhari, seperti Culanggi dan Kawasan ImageKabikuannya.Sementara itu daerah seperti wilayah Waruk Sambung dan Wilang, hanya dikenakan "I mas Suwarna" kepada Sri Maharaja setiap bulan "Kesanga" (Centra).Pembebasan atas pajak itu antara lain berupa "Kring Padammaduy" (Iuran Pemadam Kebakaran), "Tapahaji erhaji" (Iuran yang berkaitan dengan air), "Tuhan Tuha dagang" (Kepala perdagangan), "Tuha hujamman" (Ketua Kelompok masyarakat), "Manghuri" (Pujangga Kraton), "Pakayungan Pakalangkang" (Iuran lumbung padi), "Pamanikan" (Iuran manik-manik, permata) dan masih banyak pajak lainnya.Kala itu juga belum ada piagam penghargaan untuknya. maka sebagai peringatan atas jasanya itu lalu dibuat prasasti sebagai "Pngeleng-eleng" (Peringatan). Prasasti itu diberi nama "HARINJING" B" yang bertahun Masehi 19 September 921 Masehi. Dan disebitlah "Selamat tahun saka telah lampau 843, bulan Asuji, tanggal lima belas paro terang, paringkelan Haryang, Umanis (legi). Budhawara (Hari Rabo), Naksatra (bintang) Uttara Bhadrawada, dewata ahnibudhana, yoga wrsa.Menurut penelitian dari para ahli lembaga Javanologi, Drs. M.M. Soekarton Kartoadmodjo, Kediri lahir pada Maret 804 Masehi. Sekitar tahun itulah, Kediri mulai disebut-sebut sebagai nama tempat maupun negara. Belum ada sumber resmi seperti prasasti maupun dokumen tertulis lainnya yang dapat menyebutkan, kapan sebenarnya Kediri ini benar-benar menjadi pusat dari sebuah Pemerintahan maupun sebagai mana tempat.Dari prasasti yang diketemukan kala itu, masih belum ada pemisah wilayah administratif seperti sekarang ini. Yaitu adanya Kabupaten dan Kodya Kediri, sehingga peringatan Hari Jadi Kediri yang sekarang ini masih merupakan milik dua wilayah dengan dua kepala wilayah pula.Menurut para ahli, baik Kadiri maupun Kediri sama-sama berasal dari bahasa Sansekerta, dalam etimologi "Kadiri" disebut sebagai "Kedi" yang artinya "Mandul", tidak berdatang bulan (aprodit). Dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno, "Kedi" juga mempunyai arti "Dikebiri" atau dukun. Menurut Drs. M.M. Soekarton Kartoadmodjo, nama Kediri tidak ada kaitannya dengan "Kedi" maupun tokok "Rara Kilisuci". Namun berasal dari kata "diri" yang berarti "adeg" (berdiri) yang mendapat awalan "Ka" yang dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno berarti "Menjadi Raja".Kediri juga dapat berarti mandiri atau berdiri tegak, berkepribadian atau berswasembada. Jadi pendapat yang mengkaitkan Kediri dengan perempuan, apalagi dengan Kedi kurang beralasan. Menurut Drs. Soepomo Poejo Soedarmo, dalam kamus Melayu, kata "Kediri" dan "Kendiri" sering menggantikan kata sendiri.Perubahan pengucapan "Kadiri" menjadi "Kediri" menurut Drs. Soepomo paling tidak ada dua gejala. Yang pertama, gejala usia tua dan gejala informalisasi. Hal ini berdasarkan pada kebiasaan dalam rumpun bahasa Austronesia sebelah barat, dimana perubahan seperti tadi sering terjadi.

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